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420                HISTORY OF PERSIA
provinces of Erivan and Nakhchivan and the payment of
an indemnity fixed at ten crores1 of tomans, equivalent
to thirty million silver roubles, or rather more than
The new frontier was laid down in detail in Article 4
of the treaty.2 It followed the River Aras eastward as far
as the 48th parallel of longitude. At this point it trended
to the south, giving part of Talish, including Lankoran,
to Russia, and then eastward again to the Caspian Sea,
which it reached at Astara. By the seventh Article Abbas
Mirza was formally recognized as heir to the throne of
Persia, and by the tenth Russia acquired the right to
nominate Consuls or commercial agents "wherever the good
of commerce may require.'' A separate compact dealt with
the question ofcc Commerce and the Security of Subjects."
By its terms 5 per cent was agreed to for the customs'
charges on exports and imports ; Russian officials were
allowed to import goods intended for their personal use
free of charge and were also allowed to protect their
Persian employes. Finally, they retained power over their
own subjects.
This treaty marked the beginning of a new era, since
Persia from that time ceased to be the entirely independent
power that had been courted by France and England.
France had left the arena, and England was not slow to
see the changed-position. The treaty is scarcely less im-
portant from another point of view ; for it is the basis on
which all western nations have since conducted their inter-
course with Persia, and the extra-territorial privileges it
introduced for Russians have been extended to other
Europeans and are in force to this day. The negotiations,
which began in the month of November 1827, were not
concluded until the following February, the aged Shah
having refused to unlock the doors of his treasure-house.
He was afraid, moreover, that the money might be used
by General Paskievich to finance a new campaign against
Persia, Fortunately the British Minister, Sir John
, was able to reassure the Shah on this point,
1 A Persian crore is half a million.
2 Vide Aitchtson's Treaties^ Appendix XVI,